A Brief History of Karabakh

2016-04-03 15:20:00

1.    The Karabakh region is one of the most ancient cradles of civilisation. 2.    Ancient trace of human in the Azikh cave goes back to approximately 350, 000 - 400,000 years ago. 3.    The first political power in this region was Albania (consisted dominantly from the Turkic speaking tribes) that ruled the Southern Caucasus region for nearly 1000 years until the 7th Century AD when the Arabs conquered the region. Albanians were the first Christians in the South Caucasus who built Nestorian churches and were the allies of the Byzantium Empire against the Sassanids and Arabs and their allies Armenian feudal groups. 4.    In the medieval period, the Karabagh region, including the Irevan belonged to various Azerbaijani states. 5.    The area became part of the Russian Empire in 1828. Armenians in the Ottoman Empire and Iran became the strong allies of the Russian Empire against the Ottomans and aided them in Russia’s plan of Eastern expansion. When the Ottomans and Gajars lost the war against the Russians, according to the agreement between the empires, more than 150,000 Armenians started to migrate from Iran and Ottoman lands to the Irevan Khanate and Karabakh. In 1828-1920, 560,000 Armenians were resettled in Azerbaijan, especially in the area north of the river Araz. Later on, some of the Armenian historians falsified the statistics and used this fact against the Ottoman Empire for so-called Armenian genocide. The aim was to increase the number of Armenians in the region. Most of these new migrants were resettled in the landsof the Irevan Khanate. In accordance with a decree of the Russian Emperor Nicholas I of 21 March 1828, the Irevan khanate along with the Nakhchivan were abolished and replaced by a new administrative unit known as the "Armenian Oblast," and later on, the Erivan Guberniya [Province]. 6.    In 1918, after the collapse ... Devamı

Donor agencies and MDGs

2014-10-13 02:55:00

Nazila Isgandarova When the eight Millennium Development Goals were introduced in 2001, everyone anticipated that these goals must be achieved by 2015. However, only a few months left to reach the 2015, women are still targets in conflicts and wars, millions of children still die in Africa, Latin America and South Asia from preventable causes and chronic malnutrition before their fifth birthday every year, and food still is the most critical issue in the world. In addition, continuous problems and crisis in Africa, Far Asia, East Europe, and the Middle East pose the question: why do donor programs fail to reach their objectives in spite of the significant funding? The second question is with regard to the mode of action of donor agencies. Since their goals overlap in many cases, is it possible that they cooperate together rather than acting independently? Third, why the developed countries criticize the UNDP agencies, for instance, Food and Agriculture Agency, in their performance? Our aim is not to answer to all these questions. However, this article at least gives some insight about the problem with regard to the donor agencies and the MDSs.  The Donor Countries The UN has to work with governments, civil society and other partners to fulfill its ambitious agenda to meet the MDGs. The organization is especially dependent on international donor agencies. Although it takes more time and energy to urge the governments to provide more aid, the UN has no other way, except to wait patiently because one of the indicators of success of the MDGs depends on how donor agencies and recipients together work in the areas of nutrition, education, health, gender equality and the environment. However, the donor agencies also are less confident how to achieve the goals and implement their strategies because the MDGs are too much focused on what should be achieved. Furthermore, The donor agencies are divided into different groups, such as the natio... Devamı

Persecution of Christians is the Betrayal of Islam

2014-10-13 02:41:00

Nazila Isgandarova Fundamentalism in extremist Islamist thought, especially of the bloodthirsty jihadist ISIS, threatens common historical and cultural heritage between Muslims and Christians in the Middle East. Instead of reflecting on how this happened, I will reflect on why the persecution of Christians in the region “in the name of Islam” is the betrayal of Islam itself. Nevertheless, I also suggest that we need a clear explanation of how this happened, as it is important to prevent it in future, and recreate the Middle East as one of the peaceable regions of the world. First, ISIS persecution of Christians in the region, which constituted 5% of the population (approximately 12 million Christians), down from 20% in the early 20th century, deeply insults the Qur’anic respect for them, who are known as “Nasara” and who once helped the first refugee Muslims from Madinah to Ethiopia. Just because of the Qur’anic verses devoted to them and the lessons learned from the sirah, the Prophet’s life narrative, every honest Muslim not only carry a spirit of inherent respect to Christians, but also feel that they owe to “Nasara” for saving the lives of the early Muslims. Second, historically, Muslims and Christians in the Middle East share almost the same cultural and historical legacy. Most Christians in Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Palestine, and Egypt speak Arabic or Aramaic (both belong to the Semitic languages).  Third, whenIslam became the main religion of the region, the Muslim leaders did not killor persecuted Christians; rather, they granted legal protection to churches, monasteries and Christian shrines.  These places were also under the moral protection of ordinary Muslims, who not only protected their neighbors who had been around longer, but also respected these places and owned them as places of pilgrimage centres. An example for these various shared s... Devamı

What is Wrong with Us?

2014-07-02 03:05:00

Nazila Isgandarova A Toronto-based researcher and the author of the Nectar of Passion Published by Today's Zaman on July 30, 2014 Weblink: http://www.todayszaman.com/news-351711-what-is-wrong-with-us-by-nazila-isgandarova-.html The division of the Muslim world into the Sunni and Shi’a sects once more became very sensitive with the war in Syria and the recent resurgence of the ISIS in Iraq. Both Muslims and non-Muslims question how come Islam, which is “a peace of religion”, cannot achieve the unity of Muslims. Who represents the “true” Islam? These questions are valid and the answer is important in addressing the problematic areas of our faith.   First of all, as millions of Muslims, I also strongly believe that Islam preaches unity; however, its followers are so diverse in regards to their values, lifestyles, and approach to religious tradition that anyone who attempts to get a monolithic answer will face many dilemmas. One of the diversity of Muslims is with regards to the existence of sects and multiplicity of religious thought.Such diversity is a blessing in many senses; however, Muslims still struggle how to embrace and deal with this diversity. As the internal war in Syria and Iraq once again demonstrates that the invented famous tradition about the seventy-three sects, which are destined for Hell, except one, still produces very many problems indeed. This tradition formed the basis for the history of sects in Islam, which its advocates, such as early Muslim scholars, including Ibn Batta (d.997), al-Shahrastani (1086-1153) and al-Baghdadi (d. 1037), then Ash'arite theologian Adud al-Din al-Iji (c. 1281-1355) and others, tried to identify the successful sect as their own sects of school of thought. Such attempts opened a new direction in Islamic theology: orthodoxy and heresy. This is one of the important reasons that early and later generations of Muslims came to various, unfortunately bia... Devamı